A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. Originally, an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another. Synthetic antibiotics, usually chemically related to natural antibiotics, have since been produced that accomplish comparable tasks.

A muscular, balloon-like organ that stores urine.

Removal of a small tissue sample so it can be examined to determine if cancer cells are present.

Bladder Stones
Bladder stones are crystalline masses that form from the minerals and proteins, which naturally occur in urine. These types of stones are much less common than Kidney Stones.

Bladder Hernia

The protrusion of an organ, part of an organ, or other structure through the wall of the body cavity normally containing it. Various organs may be involved, including the bladder, brain, esophagus, intestine, ovary, and rectum. The most common location for a hernial bulge to appear is the abdominal wall, particularly the groin.

Bladder Control Problems (Incontinence)
Incontinence is the loss of normal control of the bowel or bladder. Incontinence can involve the involuntary voiding of urine (urinary incontinence) or of stool and gas (fecal or bowel incontinence). More Information: Women’s Bladder Control Center of Excellence

Brachytherapy (Seeded Implant)
Places tiny radioactive seeds, about ¼” long and the diameter of a pin, throughout the prostate in order to deliver a constant dose of radiation for several months to kill prostate cancer cells.

Benign Prostate Hyperplaia (BPH) 
As a man ages, it is common for the prostate gland to become enlarge. This condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or benign prostatic hypertrophy. Most men over the age of 50 have BPH, an enlarged prostate.  Dr. Robert Pugach treats BPH with a safe and effective thermotherapy procedure done in the office in 30 minutes.

A naturally occurring mineral that is essential to bone health and is found in 80% of kidney stones.

A soft tube inserted through the urethra or abdominal wall into the bladder to drain urine. People who use catheters long-term are at risk for urinary tract infections.

Treatment of cancer or related diseases with chemical agents.

The removal of the foreskin that hangs over the head of the penis.

The procedure of creating an ice ball within the prostate (or kidney) to achieve sub-freezing temperature – typically in the – 40°C range – using Argon gas.  When the “lethal ice” temperature is reached, cancer cells (which are more susceptible to cold temperatures than normal, healthy cells) are killed.

For women, traumatic cystitis is one of the most common forms of cystitis and is due to bruising of the bladder.  Cystitis is a term that is used to refer to urinary bladder inflammation.  It is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection and is also categorized as a urinary tract infection.

Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)

A procedure in which a physician inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the patient’s rectum to examine the rectum and the prostate gland for signs of cancer. The physician checks for palpable (found by touch) abnormalities in the prostate, through the thin wall of the rectum. It should be noted, that the entire gland cannot be checked, which is why a PSA test is also recommended.

The epididymis is a structure where sperm is stored and matures. One epididymis is attached to the back side of each testicle, from where it also transports sperm to the vas deferens.

Erectile Dysfuntion (Impotence)

Erectile dysfunction, or “impotence”, is defined as an inability to achieve an erection that is satisfactory for sexual activity.

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

A bacterium that lives in the digestive tract and is responsible for most bladder infections.

General Anesthesia

Any of various anesthetic drugs, usually administered by inhalation or intravenous injection, that produce general anesthesia

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

HIFU is the procedure that uses ultrasound energy to heat and destroy targeted areas of tissue. The sound waves pass through healthy tissue without causing damage. Ultrasound energy, or sound waves, is focused at a specific location and at that “focal point” the temperature rises to 90 degrees Celsius in a matter of seconds

The inability of a man to have or keep an erection. Also referred to as ED.

Incontinence (Overactive Bladder)
Involuntary loss of urine that results in urine leakage, causing hygienic or social problems. Bladder control problems affect men and women. Visit our Centers of Excellence for Bladder Control for more information.

Organs that remove waste and water from blood to produce urine. Kidneys are bean-shaped organs. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, your kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to your bladder through tubes called ureters.

Kidney Stones

A small hard mass in the kidney that forms from deposits chiefly of phosphates and urates.

Mixed incontinence
A combination of types of Incontinence, usually stress and urge.

No Needle/No Scalpel Vasectomy 100% money back guarantee!
A revolutionary new approach that does not involve a needle or scalpel. Instead of feeling discomfort from a needle to inject a local anesthetic, the “No-Needle Anesthetic” passes Novocain with a “jet” injector that never penetrates a patient’s skin. The “No Scalpel” vasectomy use a special instrument (not a scalpel) to make a single small skin opening through which the urologist can perform the vasectomy procedure.

Overflow incontinence

A type of Incontinence in which the bladder remains full, and leaks urine. You may feel as though you need to empty your bladder, but cannot, or you may urinate a small amount but feel like your bladder is still full.

Pelvic Floor Muscles
Muscles that run from the pubic bone in front to the tail bone in back that support organs in the pelvis.

The lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones. Organs in the female pelvis include the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder and rectum.

Peyronie’s Disease
Peyronie’s Disease results from scar tissue that develops in one of the deep layers of the penis. It presents normal lengthening of the penis as it enlarges during an erection. The result is a bend at the site of the scar. Depending on where the scar is located, the penis can bend up, down, left or right. Besides making intercourse difficult or unpleasant, Peyronie’s Disease can also result in a shorter penis or one that is too soft or angled for satisfactory sexual activity.

A gland in men, the size and shape of a walnut in puberty, that surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder. It controls release of urine from the bladder and the flow of semen and prevents the two from mixing.

Prostate Cancer
A disease where cells of the prostate become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming cancer, which has the potential to spread to other parts of the body and be fatal. A cancer in the prostate may interfere with proper control of the bladder and normal sexual function. The first symptom of prostate cancer may be difficulty in urinating. However, because a very common, non-cancerous condition of the prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also causes the same problem, difficulty in urination is not necessarily prostate cancer.

Prostate  Disorder 
Any abnormality or disease of the prostate gland.. About half of all men over 60 have nonmalignant enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The gland may eventually compress the urethra, causing problems urinating. Prostate infections, called prostatitis, are very common in men and can be treated by Dr. Pugach.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test

A blood test used to help detect prostate cancer.  The PSA test measures levels of a substance called “prostate-specific antigen” made by the prostate gland. PSA levels often go up in men with prostate cancer. To learn more about prostate cancer, risks, detection and treatment, click here.

An infection of the kidney.

The external sac of skin which encloses the testes. The function of the scrotum is to keep the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than that of the rest of the body.

Semen is a mixture of sperm cells and seminal secretions – less than 1% sperm to 99% secretions by volume. The volume of each ejaculate of semen is approximately 2 to 6 cc. Each cc of semen can contain up to 100 million sperm cells.

Seminal Vesicle

One of two glands (plural seminal vesicles) that produce a component of semen.

The male reproductive cell. In man, sperm are produced in the testes and travels through the male’s reproductive system. At fertilization, one sperm of the roughly 300 million in an average ejaculation (see semen ) fertilizes an the female egg to produce a pregnancy.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)

The most common type of incontinence in women in which urinary leakage occurs when physical stress or pressure is put on the bladder, such as in coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercising. More than 15 million women in the U.S. experience SUI. SUI often develops after pregnancy and childbirth, and occurs when the tissues surrounding the urethra no longer provide adequate support to prevent the bladder from opening.

A testicle is one of two male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone. It is also known as the testis. Both testicles are held in the scrotum.

The male sex hormone produced mostly by the testicles. A small amount is made by the adrenal glands. In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues, including the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass and hair growth.  Testosterone is essential for health and well-being.

ThermoTherapy (Microwave)
A minimally invasive procedure used to treat BPH. ThermoTherapy is done in Dr. Pugach’s office, usually in 30 minutes. The procedure utilizes targeted heath engergy to destroy enlarged prostate tissue and relive pressure on the urethra. During the procedure, unique cooling mechanisms protect healthy tissue and enable more BPH tissue to be removed. Dr. Pugach is one of the most experienced urologist in the Western United States in thermotherapy.

Two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

A tube that carries semen and urine through the penis outside the body.

Inflammation of the urethra, the small tube carrying urine from the bladder out of the body. It can be caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infections. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia, may be the cause. Less than half of women with this have any symptoms. The most common of which includes frequent or burning urination.

Urge incontinence
A type of Incontinence that is characterized by sudden feelings of having to urinate immediately, and often being unable to get to a toilet in time. A symptom of an overactive bladder may be urge incontinence.

Urinary sphincter
A circular muscle at the base of the bladder and the wall of the urethra that controls urination. It contracts to close off the bladder neck and the urethra so urine does not escape from the body, and relaxes to allow urine to drain from the body.

Urinary tract

The system in the body that makes, stores and discharges urine, including two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra.

Liquid waste product filtered from the blood by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and expelled from the body through the urethra by the act of voiding (urinating).

Urine Leakage

Urinary Incontinence (UI) is the loss of urine control, or the inability to hold your urine

Urodynamics testing
Urodynamics is the science of diagnosing the cause of bladder control problems.  From the changes that occur in women after menopause to enlarged prostates, from back problems to changes in your anatomy over the years, there are many causes.  By identifying the cause, Dr. Pugach is able to recommend specific treatments to correct bladder control problems.  Opus is the most advanced urodynamic system in the world today. Opus allows us to perform urodynamics.

An abnormal enlargement of the veins in the scrotum draining the testicles. The veins can elevate the temperature around the testicle, leading to infertility or pain.

Vas Deferens

The vas deferens is one of two small muscular tubes that connect to the ejaculatory ducts in the prostate and carry sperm from the testicles. Also referred to as the vas, each tube is approximately 14 inches long by 0.1 inch wide. The vas deferens functions as a conduit to carry sperm from the testes out through the penis via the urethra.

Vasectomy  (No Needle, No Scalpel…No Kidding!)
Surgical closing of the vas deferens, usually as a means of sterilization.  A vasectomy is a surgical procedure performed on adult males in which the vasa deferentia (tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the ejaculatory ducts) are cut, cauterized or otherwise interrupted. The semen no longer contains sperm after the tubes are cut, so conception cannot occur. The testicles continue to produce sperm, but the sperm die and are absorbed by the body. (See non-surgical vasectomy procedure- No Needle/No Scalpel Vasectomy)

Vasectomy Reversal
Vasectomy is the process by which the tube carrying sperm from the testicles out the penis is blocked. Vasectomy reversal is a procedure of re-opening the vas deferens to re-introduce sperm to semen. Vasectomy reversal is a delicate micro-surgical procedure (done using an operating microscope) that requires up to 4 hours of operating time, wherein the tubes are reconnected, allowing sperm to pass through once again.